b'How Strategic Models Can Help Practitioners Plan for Changeand assess in more robust assessment tools. Thisof both automobile and light-truck owners who economical process reduces the number of modelwould substitute a less-costly car service option with scenarios, network options, and runs in the regional orowning a vehicle. Adjusting these inputs can affect statewide travel demand model. the competitiveness of car services and simulated household vehicle ownership.Strategic Models and Disruptive Technologies VisionEval developers are pursuing more capabilities, including different levels of vehicle occupancy for car Strategic models can explore the uncertainty aroundservices and privately owned automated vehicles. disruptive technologies. Several model input filesThe ability of VisionEval models to explore disruptive define the implementation extent and efficiency oftechnologies, including but not limited to ACES, intelligent transportation sys-tems. Some model inputs also define vehicle powertrain-typeFIGURE 3.STRATEGIC MODELS IN PLANNING PROCESSproportions for different fleets. For VERSPM and VEState, the user can also define the percentage of residences with electric vehicle charging avail-ability (plus workplace electric vehicle charging for VEState).In the VERSPM and VEState models, users can employ the car service mode to model diverse modes, including tradi-tional carshare services, taxis, ride-hailing services, and auto-mated robotaxi services. The model recognizes two levels of car service, low and high, and users can define characteristics of both. For example, users could employ the low level of car service to model carshare; the high level of car service could model ride-hailing or automated vehicle services. Source: FHWA Office of Operations, 2020 (adapted by RSG)By default, VERSPM and VEState both define the highis a focus area for future development. The National level of car service as having costs and access timesCooperative Research Programs Report 896, comparable to owning a private car. Users can definepublished in 2018, identified ways to improve strategic areas with car service availability, average cost permodels to account for disruptive technologies. Other mile, average age of car service vehicles in years, andareas targeted for improvements include mobility, access times. Users can also select the proportionaccessibility, connectivity, and equity. 2020 RSG 9'